Ethnie: APACHE
Language: Western Apachean
Family: Apachean
Stock: Athapaskan
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 12,693      1990 Census
     Most Apacheans began to arrive in the southwest from Canada late in the 15th century.  They represent a dialectic group which was comprised of several tribes.  These first Apaches were nomadic predatory bands which preyed on the sedentary peoples of the area.  They first settled in New Mexico and west Texas.  They acquired guns early making them even more formidable.  Famed leaders such as Magnus Colorado, Cochise, and Geronimo proved to be powerful enemies for the New Mexicans and, later, the Americans.  By the time the Apaches were defeated in the 1880's, most had become pastoral farmers. 
1800's Tribes
AZ:  San Carlos (Apache Peaks, Ariviappa, Pinal, Can Carlos, White Mountain, Cibecue, Southern Tonto, Northern Tonto); Chiricahua-Mescalero (Chiricahua)  NM:  Chiricahua-Mescalero (Chiracahua [Mimbreno, Mogollan, Warm Springs]); (Mescalero [Faraon, Mescalero])
Arizona Present Locations
Camp Verde Reservation, Middle Verde
Fort Apache Reservation, Whiteriver
Fort McDowell Reservation, Scottsdale
Payson Indian Community, Payson
Can Carlos Reservation, San Carlos
Year History
1540 Met by Coronado, called "Querechos," in west Texas and New Mexico
1598 Called "Apache" by Onate
1701 Mentioned by Kino, called "Hogiopas."
1861 Apache Uprising surrounding Ward Affair; Cochise wrongly accused of kidnapping, George Bascom took Cochise' family hostage, killed all males.  Apaches them killed several hundred Whites.
1863 Capt. Thomas Roberts attack at Apache Pass, Magnus Colorado wounded, later captured and killed at Fort McLane, Kit Carson defeated Mescaleros, interred them at Fort Sumpter, Bosque Redondo
1871 Up to 150 Ariviappas massacred at Fort Grant.
1872 Cook's Tonto Basin Campaign
1879 Victorio's resistance
1881 Geronimo's resistance of 5 years
1882 Victorio defeated in the Chihuahua desert
1885 Geronimo, Nachise and 24 other surrendered, later escaped
1886 Final Geronimo surrender
1909 Geronimo died as a prisoner of war at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma
Year Population AZ NM OK TX Source
Arrival 6,000 3,000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1680 6,000 Mooney estimate
1700 5,000 2,500 2,500 NAHDB calculation
1800 5,000 2,500 2,500 NAHDB calculation
1900 6,000 5,400 500 100 NAHDB calculation
1910 6,119 Census
1923 6,630 US Indian Office
1930 6,537 Census (including some others)
1937 6,916 US Indian Office 
1973 16,735 BIA
1981 17,358 BIA
1989 20,022 BIA
2000 22,000 18,500 3,400 100 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Apache Sites:
A Chiricahua Apache's Account of the Geronimo Campaign of 1886
Apache Authors
Apache Basket Weaver, Linda Guzman
Apache Creation Story
Apache:  Creation Story
Apache Girl Comes of Age
Apache Gold Casino
Apache Indian
Apache Indian History
Apache Indian Photos 
Apache Indians
Apache Indians Defended Homelands in the Southwest
Apache Indians Historic Wars Maps
Apache Indian Lyrics
Apache Indian Tribe
Apache Indians, Texas ...
Apache Kid, The
Apache Language
Apache Language
Apache Language and Communication
Apache Men
Apache Nation
Apache People ...
Apache Photo Gallery
Apache, Pueblo, and Zuni Indians
Apache Scouts in the Punitive Expedition
Apache Tribal Nation
Apac Tribe 
Apache Wars
Apache Women
Athabaskan (Na-Dene) Language Family
Battle With the Apache, 1872
Becoming Woman:  Apache Female Puberty Sunrise Ceremony ...
Ft. Apache Historic Park
Ft. Apache History
Ft. Sill Apache
Ft. Sill Apache Constitution
Ft. Sill Apache Tribe
Geronimo, His Own Story
Legend of the Apache Tear
Lipan Apache
Mazatzal Hotel and Casino
Navajo/Apache Language
Nnee - San Carlos Apache
Post Contact Social Organization of Three Apache Tribes
Preserve America Community:  White Mountain Apache ...
Reviving Languages, Saving Cultures
San Carlos Apache
San Carlos Apache Nation
San Carlos Apache Nation Flag
San Carlos Apache Tribe and MGIO
San Carlos Indian Reservation, Geologic Map
Tonto Apache
Tonto Apache Tribe
Treaty with the Apache, July 1, 1852
Western Apache
Western Apache Language
Western Apache Words
White Mountain Apache Constitution
White Mountain Apache Language
White Mountain Apache Origins
White Mountain Apache Tribe
White Mountain Apache Tribe, Great Seal
White Mountain Apache ... Wolf Recovery
Yavapai-Apache Indians

Last updated 09/16/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press